Some national languages like FinnishTurkishRussianSerbo-Croatian SerbianCroatian and Bosnian and Bulgarian have a very regular spelling system with a nearly one-to-one correspondence between letters and phonemes.
Different dialects of a language may use different phonemes for the same word. A language may represent the same phoneme with two or more different letters or combinations of letters. One, two, or three characters make a word. The boundaries between the three types of segmental scripts are not always clear-cut.
At the other extreme are languages such as English, where the pronunciations of many words simply have to be memorized as they do not correspond to the spelling in a consistent way.
Pronunciation of individual words may change according to the presence of surrounding words in a sentence sandhi.
For tonal languagesfurther classification can be based on their treatment of tone, though names do not yet exist to distinguish the various types. The pronunciation of a language often evolves independently of its writing system, and writing systems have been borrowed for languages they were not designed for, so the degree to which letters of an alphabet correspond to phonemes of a language varies greatly from one language to another and even within a single language.
Names of letters The Phoenician letter names, in which each letter was associated with a word that begins with that sound acrophonycontinue to be used to varying degrees in SamaritanAramaicSyriacHebrewGreek and Arabic.
Syllabaries typically contain 50 to glyphs, and the glyphs of logographic systems typically number from the many hundreds into the thousands. A language may spell some words with unpronounced letters that exist for historical or other reasons. The Pinyin syllable is usually made up of 3 parts, which are called the initial, the final, and the tone.
In the narrower sense, some scholars distinguish "true" alphabets from two other types of segmental script, abjads and abugidas. These simple characters are words on their own, but can be combined to form new words.
In a perfectly phonemic orthography there would be a consistent one-to-one correspondence between the letters and the phonemes, so that a writer could predict the spelling of a word given its pronunciation, and a speaker would always know the pronunciation of a word given its spelling, and vice versa.
For example, Sorani Kurdish is written in the Arabic scriptwhich is normally an abjad. In accordance with the principle on which alphabets are based, these rules will generally map letters of the alphabet to the phonemes significant sounds of the spoken language.
In Cyrillic originally the letters were given names based on Slavic words; this was later abandoned as well in favor of a system similar to that used in Latin. The Armenian alphabet Armenian: However, Hawaiian Braille has only 13 letters.
National languages sometimes elect to address the problem of dialects by simply associating the alphabet with the national standard.
The largest alphabets in the narrow sense include Kabardian and Abkhaz for Cyrillicwith 58 and 56 letters, respectively, and Slovak for the Latin scriptwith Sometimes, countries have the written language undergo a spelling reform to realign the writing with the contemporary spoken language.
Rather, it has characters that are associated with a concept and not a sound. Alphabetical order Alphabets often come to be associated with a standard ordering of their letters, which can then be used for purposes of collation —namely for the listing of words and other items in what is called alphabetical order.
A language may represent the same phoneme with two or more different letters or combinations of letters. Conversely, the vowel marks of the Tigrinya abugida and the Amharic abugida ironically, the original source of the term "abugida" have been so completely assimilated into their consonants that the modifications are no longer systematic and have to be learned as a syllabary rather than as a segmental script.
An example is modern Greek which may write the phoneme [i] in six different ways: It is the largest true alphabet where each letter is graphically independent with 33 letters. This clears up a few points that had been problematic in the Haerye.
Although short a was not written, as in the Indic abugidas, one could argue that the linear arrangement made this a true alphabet. Strictly speaking, these national languages lack a word corresponding to the verb "to spell" meaning to split a word into its lettersthe closest match being a verb meaning to split a word into its syllables.
The Brahmic family of alphabets used in India use a unique order based on phonology: Some alphabets today, such as the Hanuno'o scriptare learned one letter at a time, in no particular order, and are not used for collation where a definite order is required.
The boundaries between the three types of segmental scripts are not always clear-cut. The Korean alphabet was designed not just to write Korean, but to accurately represent Chinese. But if this person opens up their arms like this: Ge'ez Script of Ethiopia and Eritrea Thus the primary classification of alphabets reflects how they treat vowels.
In French, these are not considered to be additional letters for the purposes of collation. However, such apparent simplifications can perversely make a script more complicated. The names were abandoned in Latinwhich instead referred to the letters by adding a vowel usually e before or after the consonant; the two exceptions were Y and Zwhich were borrowed from the Greek alphabet rather than Etruscan, and were known as Y Graeca "Greek Y" pronounced I Graeca "Greek I" and zeta from Greek —this discrepancy was inherited by many European languages, as in the term zed for Z in all forms of English other than American English.
For example, a comma-shaped letter represented g, d, y, k, or j.
Languages may fail to achieve a one-to-one correspondence between letters and sounds in any of several ways: The Armenian alphabet Armenian:. Asian alphabets. Beyond the logographic Chinese writing, many phonetic scripts are in existence in Asia.
The Arabic alphabet, Hebrew alphabet, Syriac alphabet, and other abjads of the Middle East are developments of the Aramaic alphabet, but because these writing systems are largely consonant-based they are often not considered true. Watch video · There is no Chinese alphabet in the sense we understand it in the West.
Chinese characters are not letters (with some exceptions), Chinese characters represent an idea, a concept or an object. While in the west each of the letters of our alphabet represents a sound that generally has no particular meaning. There are over.
Chinese “Alphabet” Symbols Symbols were selected based on their visual similarity to corresponding English alphabet letters. Only real Chinese characters are used.
In Joseon Dynasty Korea, scholars typically used the classical Chinese writing system. But the nation was facing widespread illiteracy, and classical Chinese is notoriously difficult to learn--especially for laypeople and the working class.
So in King Sejeong created the Hangeul alphabet, which is phonetic and deliberately easy to master. Asian alphabets. Beyond the logographic Chinese writing, many phonetic scripts are in existence in Asia. The Arabic alphabet, Hebrew alphabet, Syriac alphabet, and other abjads of the Middle East are developments of the Aramaic alphabet, but because these writing systems are largely consonant-based they are often not considered true alphabets.
Chinese is quite different from English and other languages. With other languages, you usually start out learning that language’s alphabet. Thus, you might think that there is also a Chinese Alphabet. However, Chinese is not constructed by the Roman letters that other languages use.
As you can see.Wise in chinese writing alphabet